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Die Welt der ersten Bauern in Europa

Entwicklung ... Hund

Last hunter-gatherers and first farmers of Europe (2011) https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1631069110002994?via%3Dihub

The origins of animal domestication and husbandry: A major change in the history of humanity and the biosphere https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1631069110002982

Toward understanding dog evolutionary and domestication history https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1631069110003008

Studies on early dog remains from Northern Europe https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0305440387800043

Einbäume-Experimente

Wolfgang Lobisser (VIAS) - Researchgate

Lobisser, W.: → Zur experimentalarchäologischen Herstellung eines Einbaums aus Eichenholz mit Werkzeugen, Methoden und Techniken der Bronzezeit. Experimentelle Archäologie in Europa 18 – Jahrbuch 2019, S. 153-170. (früher 2005: Tannen-Einbaum am Mondsee in Lobisser 2019)

Forscher wollen Tauglichkeit von Steinzeit-Einbäumen am Attersee testen; → DerStandard, 17.4.2016 (mit Bild)

Braunbären

Kunst, Günther; (VIAS) Pacher, Martina: → Brown bear remains in prehistoric and early historic societies: case studies from Austria; Berichte der Geologischen Bundesanstalt, Jänner 2019. (neolithisch viel in MONDSEE [Fig. 4, p. 132], Dürrnberg - Eisenzeit); Mondsee material was divided into old (Mondsee 1; WolFF, 1977) and new (Mondsee 2; pucher & enGl , 1997) elements. → Table p. 132 (1/4 ist juvenil; other carnivores … !); in Mondsee sind alle Knochen repräsentiert, v.a. die längeren Knochen); die Hälfte der Überreste sind Zähne (Wolff); Schnittspuren; mehrere Abb., SEARCH: 36 x „Mondsee“
Pucher, Erich & Engl, Kurt (1997): Tierknochenfunde. Studien zur Pfahlbauforschung in Österreich Materialien 1: Die Pfahlbaustationen des Mondsees. Mitteilungen der Prähistorischen Kommission 33, Vienna: Austrian Academy of Science.
Wolff, Petra (1977): → Die Jagd- und Haustierfauna der spätneolithischen Pfahlbauten des Mondsees. JB des Oö Musealvereins 122(1), 269-347.

Todorova, Henrieta (Prof., Sofia)

https://www.researchgate.net/scientific-contributions/Henrieta-Todorova-2070705424

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Ivan-Vajsov-2

DAS BUCH zu HHHQ Historia Neolithica: Todorova, H.; Vajsov, I.: → Neolithic period in Bulgaria. (Novokamennata epoha v Balgaria), Dec 1993. 228 Abb. © Henrietta Todorova, Ivan Vaisov, 1993. – in KYRILLISCH; Resumee in Deutsch: S. 273-277 (Überblick über die Kapitel); S. 9: C14-Gehalt der Atmosphäre (nach M. Stuiver, G.W.Pearson und T. Braziumas, 1986); Webstuhl S. 183 … Eiszeiten ... TAFELN S. 290-321.

Todorova, Henrieta: → DURANKULAK, BAND II - DIE PRÄHISTORISCHEN GRÄBERFELDER VON DURANKULAK TEIL 1

Die Ausgrabungen in Durankulak (Bulgarien), die in den Jahren 1974–1997 stattgefunden haben, brachten zahlreicheneue Kenntnisse über die Urgeschichte der Balkanhalbinsel. Zusammen mit den früheren Funden aus denGräberfeldern von Devnja und Varna zeigten die prähistorischen Gräberfelder von Durankulak, dass die Westküste des Schwarzen Meeres im 5. Jahrtausend vor ...

Todorova, Henrieta: → DURANKULAK, BAND II - DIE PRÄHISTORISCHEN GRÄBERFELDER VON DURANKULAK TEIL 2 (KATALOG; Necropolis plans format A1; 203 Tafeln)

BUCH: Ivan Vajsov; Henrieta Todorova: → Der kupferzeitliche Schmuck Bulgariens. December 2001, Edition: Prähistorische Bronzefunde (PBF), Publisher: Franz Steiner Verlag, 200 S. HQ: Generelle Darstellung zu SCHMUCK (Material, Herstellung … und wie getragen); Varna uvam.; 64 TAFELN ab S. 135 Die Formenvielfalt wie die große Anzahl des vorgelegten Schmuckes aus Edelmetall und Kupfer zeigt die große Bedeutung, die das Metall in der Kupferzeit Südosteuropas im Schmuckbereich hatte. Es handelt sich hierbei um die bisher vollständigste Studie zum kupferzeitlichen Schmuck in Südosteuropa. "…ist dieser Band hochwillkommen, weil er einen rasc...

Weninger, B., Alram-Stern, E., Bauer, E., Clare, L., Danzeglocke, U., Jöris, P., Kubatzki, C., Rollefson, G., and Todorova, H. 2005.: → Die Neolithisierung von Südosteuropa als Folge des abrupten Klimawandels um 8200 calBP In: Detlef Gronenborn (Hrsg.) Klimaveränderung und Kulturwandel in neolithischen Gesellschaften Mitteleuropas 6700-22 v.Chr. RGZM-Tagungen Band 1. 2005, 75-117.

Zusammenstellung der wichtigsten C14-datierten) Siedlungen des akeramischen und keramischen Neolithikums im östlichen Mittelmeeerraum (Israel, Palestina, Jordanien, Syrien, Zypern, Anatolien [Hacilar, Catalhöyük], Irak, Griechenland, und Bulgarien) vor, von denen wir vermuten, daß sie von den Auswirkungen des 8200 calBP-Ereignisses betroffen waren.

Todorova, H.: → Die überregionalen komplexen Gemeinschaften, Kulturblöcke und ökologischen Krisen in der Urgeschichte im Raum der unteren Donau (VII.-I. Jahrtausend v. Chr.) – in: STUDIA PRAEHISTORICA 14, 2011, S. 143-155. ALLES mit KLIMA erklärt!

Todorova, H. (†): → Klimawandel und Kulturkollaps (2016). In: Prähistorische Archäologie in Südosteuropa, Band 30. Verlag Marie Leidorf. (Klima-Abbildungen) ganz ähnlich zum vorigen Artikel !

Varna

Slavchev Vladimir: → THE VARNA ENEOLITHIC NECROPOLIS AND PROBLEMS OF PREHISTORY IN SOUTHEAST EUROPE. In: The Lost World of Old Europe - The Danube Valley, 5000–3500 BC. 2010.

Raiko Krauß, Clemens Schmid, David Kirschenheuter, Jonas Abele, Vladimir Slavchev and Bernhard Weninger: → Chronology and development of the Chalcolithic necropolis of Varna I. Documenta Praehistorica XLIV (2017)

Literatur (Alteuropa etc.)

https://univie.academia.edu/MariaIvanova

TUG-Bibl. Mariya Ivanova (VIAS): → The Black Sea and the Early Civilizations of Europe, the Near East and Asia; Cambridge University Press, 404 pages, Hardcover; First published January 1, 2013

The Black Sea lies at the junction of three major cultural areas: Europe, Central Asia, and the Near East. It plays a crucial role in enduring discussions about the impact of complex Near Eastern societies on European societies, and the repercussions of early urbanization across Eurasia. This book presents the first comprehensive overview of the Black Sea region in the prehistoric period. It penetrates artificial boundaries imposed by traditions, politics, and language to encompass both the European and Asiatic coasts and both Eastern European and Western scholarly literature. With a critical compilation and synthesis of archaeological data, this study situates the prehistoric Black Sea in a global historical context. By adopting the perspective of technology and innovation, it transcends a purely descriptive account of material culture and emphasizes society, human interaction, and engagement with the material world.

Mariya Ivanova: → Dunkle Übergangszeit? Wandel und Kontinuität im (End)Chalkolithikum an der Unteren Donau. Acta Musei Varanensis; Varna 2008, S. 163-189. [gegen Todorova, Henrieta gerichtet]

Das ausgehende 5. Jt. v. Chr. hat wie keine andere Periode in der frühen Vorgeschichte des Balkans gewagte Theorien, Spekulationen und sich in Axiome verwandelnde Modelle erzeugt. Mit der Erweiterung der archäologischen Datenbasis und der Erschließung neuer Informationen aus Nachbarwissenschaften wie der Archäobiologie und Archäometrie wird die seit den 1980er Jahren geführte Diskussion über eine "Übergangszeit" vom Chalkolithikum zur Frühen Bronzezeit im östlichen Balkan zunehmend unüberschaubarer. Eine zusammenfassende Untersuchung zu dieser Problematik existiert bislang nicht. In diesem Beitrag wird ein Versuch unternommen, archäologische Fakten von Interpretation (oder Fiktion) zu trennen und die bisherigen Modelle im Lichte der aktuellen Erkenntnisse auf den Prüfstand zu stellen. Dabei wird den offenen Fragen und den mutmaßlichen Forschungslücken besondere Beachtung geschenkt.

Kriege und Befestigungen

BUCH: Mariya Ivanova (Diss.): → Befestigte Siedlungen auf dem Balkan, in der Ägäis und in Westanatolien, ca. 5000-¬2000 v. Chr. Tübinger Schriften zur Ur‐ und Frühgeschichtlichen Archäologie 8 (Verl. Waxmann, 2008). Tübinger Schriften zur Ur- und Frühgeschichtlichen Archäologie, 463 Seiten. (Kriege …)

Auf Grundlage der stetigen Weiterentwicklung der Befestigungsanlagen zwischen ca. 5000 und 2000 v. Chr. in Südosteuropa und Kleinasien soll in diesem Buch exemplarisch ein Beitrag zum Verständnis der Hintergründe und Mechanismen kriegerischer Auseinandersetzungen sowie deren Auswirkungen auf die hieran beteiligten Gesellschaften geleistet werden. Im Mittelpunkt der Untersuchung stehen Befestigungsanlagen, die jedoch nicht aus architekturgeschichtlicher oder bauhistorischer Sicht bewertet werden sollen, sondern als Dokumente, die den Zusammenhang zwischen Siedlungswesen, Gesellschaft und kriegerischer Konfliktaustragung erhellen können.

Food Cultures of Ancient Europe

CORDIS Identifying the food cultures of ancient Europe: an interdisciplinary investigation of plant ingredients, culinary transformation and evolution through time; → Veröffentlichungen

Investigating the Food Cultures of Ancient Europa: → An interdisciplinary Investigation of Plant Ingredients, culinary Transformation an Evolution through time. → PUBLICATIONS

PROPOSAL: Maria Ivanova-Bieg, Bea De Cupere, Jonathan Ethier, Elena Marinova : → Plant foods, stone tools and food preparation in prehistoric Europe: An integrative approach in the context of ERC funded project PLANTCULT. Journal of Lithic Studies (2020) vol. 7, nr. 3; 21 pages

The transformation of food ingredients into meals corresponds to complex choices resulting from the interplay of environmental and cultural factors: available ingredients, technologies of transformation, cultural perceptions of food, as well as taste and food taboos. Project PLANTCULT (ERC Consolidator Grant, GA 682529) aims to investigate prehistoric culinary cultures from the Aegean to Central Europe by focusing on plant foods and associated food preparation technologies spanning the Neolithic through to the Iron Age. Our paper offers an overview of the lines of investigation pursued within the project to address plant food preparation and related stone tool technologies. The wide range of plant foods from the area under investigation (ground cereals, breads, beer, pressed grapes, split pulses, etc.) suggests great variability of culinary preparations. Yet, little is known of the transformation technologies involved (e.g., pounding, grinding, and boiling). Changes in size and shap...

Food in Prehistoric Balkans

BOOK: Maria Ivanova, Bogdan Athanassov, Vanya Petrova, Desislava Takorova and Philipp W. Stockhammer (Editors): → SOCIAL DIMENSIONS OF FOOD IN THE PREHISTORIC BALKANS. Osbow Books 2018, 383 pages. (INTRODUCTION; Ivanova p. 173-190; Salt p. 215, 221)

Ever since the definition of the Neolithic Revolution by Vere Gordon Childe, archaeologists have been aware of the crucial importance of food for the understanding of prehistoric developments. Numerous studies have classified and described cooking ware, hearths and ovens, have studied food residues and more recently also stable isotopes in skeletal material. However, we have not yet succeeded in integrating traditional, functional perspectives on nutrition and semiotic approaches (e.g. dietary practices as an identity marker) with current research in the fields of Food Studies and Material Culture Studies. This volume brings together leading specialists in archaeobotany, economic zooarchaeology and palaeoanthropology to discuss practices of food production and consumption in their social dimensions from the Mesolithic to the Early Iron Age in the Balkans, a region with intermediary position between and the Aegean Sea on one side and Central Europe and the Eurasian steppe regions on the other side. The prehistoric inhabitants of the Balkans were repeatedly confronted with foreign knowledge and practices of food production and consumption which they integrated and thereby transformed into their life. In a series of transdisciplinary studies, the contributors shed new light on the various social dimensions of food in a synchronous as well as diachronic perspective. Contributors present a series of case studies focused on themes of social interaction, communal food preparation and consumption, the role of feasting, and the importance and management of salt production.

Plants and Animals during the early sixth millennium BC

Ivavova et al.: → Earliest expansion of animal husbandry beyond the Mediterranean zone in the sixth millennium BC]. Nature, Scientific Reports volume 7, Article number: 7146 (2017); Open Access, Published: 02 August 2017

HHHQ Ivanova, M., 2020. → Chapter 1: Growing societies: an ecological perspective on the spread of crop cultivation and animal herding in Europe. In book: Kurt J Gron, Lasse Sorensen, Peter Rowley-Conwy (Hrsg.): Farmers at the Frontier: A Pan-European Perspective on Neolithisation. (pp.7-44). Oxbow Books, 2020. AUCH POLAND
HHHQ Gron, K.; Sorensen, L.; Rowley-Conby, P.: Introduction: Agricultural origins: where next?

Maria Ivanova-Bieg: → Pioneer farming in southeast Europe during the early sixth millennium BC: Climate-related adaptations in the exploitation of plants and animals; PloS one, May 2018 OPEN: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

The Old World farming system arose in the semi-arid Mediterranean environments of south-west Asia. Pioneer farmers settling the interior of the Balkans by the early sixth millennium BC were among the first to introduce southwest Asian-style cultivation and herding into areas with increasingly continental temperate conditions. Previous research has shown that the bioarchaeological assemblages from early farming sites in southeast Europe vary in their proportions of plant and animal taxa, but the relationship between taxonomic variation and climate has remained poorly understood. To uncover associations between multiple species and environmental factors simultaneously, we explored a dataset including altitude, five bioclimatic and 30 bioarchaeological variables (plant and animal taxa) for 57 of the earliest farming sites in southeast Europe using Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA). An extension of correspondence analysis, CCA is widely used in applied ecology to answer similar questions of species-environment relationships, but has not been previously applied in prehistoric archaeology to explore taxonomic and climatic variables in conjunction. The analyses reveal that the changes in plant and animal exploitation which occurred with the northward dispersal of farmers, crops and livestock correlate with south-north climate gradients, and emphasize the importance of adaptations in the animal domain for the initial establishment of farming beyond the Mediterranean areas.

Lucy J. E. Cramp, Jonathan Ethier, Dushka Urem-Kotsou, Clive Bonsall, Dusan Boric, Adina Boroneant, Richard P. Evershed, Slavisa Peric, Melanie Roffet-Salque, Helen L. Whelton and Maria Ivanova: → Regional diversity in subsistence among early farmers in Southeast Europe revealed by archaeological organic residues; Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 2019. Published by the Royal Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, which permits unrestricted use, provided the original author and source are credited.

The spread of early farming across Europe from its origins in Southwest Asia was a culturally transformative process which took place over millennia. Within regions, the pace of the transition was probably related to the particular climatic and environmental conditions encountered, as well as the nature of localized hunter–gatherer and farmer interactions. The establishment of farming in the interior of the Balkans represents the first movement of Southwest Asian livestock beyond their natural climatic range, and widespread evidence now exists for early pottery being used extensively for dairying. However, pottery lipid residues from sites in the Iron Gates region of the Danube in the northern Balkans show that here, Neolithic pottery was being used predominantly for processing aquatic resources. This stands out not only within the surrounding region but also contrasts markedly with Neolithic pottery use across wider Europe. These findings provide evidence for the strategic diversity within the wider cultural and economic practices during the Neolithic, with this exceptional environmental and cultural setting offering alternative opportunities despite the dominance of farming in the wider region.

Literatur - Animal Husbandry

HHHQ: neolithische Ausbreitung ... Lucy Cramp, Jonathan Ethier, Adina Boroneant, and Maria Ivanova-Bieg: → Regional diversity in subsistence among early farmers in Southeast Europe revealed by archaeological organic residues; Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 2019 (SUBJECT: EVOLUTION) OPEN Research & 2019 The Authors. Published by the Royal Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, which permits unrestricted use, provided the original author and source are credited.

The spread of early farming across Europe from its origins in Southwest Asia was a culturally transformative process which took place over millennia. Within regions, the pace of the transition was probably related to the particular climatic and environmental conditions encountered, as well as the nature of localized hunter– gatherer and farmer interactions. The establishment of farming in the interior of the Balkans represents the first movement of South- west Asian livestock beyond their natural climatic range, and widespread evidence now exists for early pottery being used extensively for dairying. However, pottery lipid residues from sites in the Iron Gates region of the Danube in the northern Balkans show that here, Neolithic pottery was being used predominantly for processing aquatic resources. This stands out not only within the surrounding region but also contrasts markedly with Neolithic pottery use across wider Europe. These findings provide evidence for the strategic diversity within the wider cultural and economic practices during the Neolithic, with this exceptional environmental and cultural setting offering alternative opportunities despite the dominance of farming in the wider region.

HHHQ HHHQ BILDER … Ivana Živaljević, Adrian Balasescu, Éva Ágnes Nyerges, Vesna Dimitrijevic, Eszter Banffy, Krisztián Oross, Ivana Vostrovská, and Maria Ivanova-Bieg (VIAS): → Seasonal calving in European Prehistoric cattle and its impacts on milk availability and cheese-making; Scientific Reports, Apr 14, 2021; Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http:// creativecommons. org/ licenses/ by/4. 0/.

Present-day domestic cattle are reproductively active throughout the year, which is a major asset for dairy production. Large wild ungulates, in contrast, are seasonal breeders, as were the last historic representatives of the aurochs, the wild ancestors of cattle. Aseasonal reproduction in cattle is a consequence of domestication and herding, but exactly when this capacity developed in domestic cattle is still unknown and the extent to which early farming communities controlled the seasonality of reproduction is debated. Seasonal or aseasonal calving would have shaped the socioeconomic practices of ancient farming societies differently, structuring the agropastoral calendar and determining milk availability where dairying is attested. In this study, we reconstruct the calving pattern through the analysis of stable oxygen isotope ratios of cattle tooth enamel from 18 sites across Europe, dating from the 6th mill. cal BC (Early Neolithic) in the Balkans to the 4th mill. cal BC (Middle Neolithic) in Western Europe. Seasonal calving prevailed in Europe between the 6th and 4th millennia cal BC. These results suggest that cattle agropastoral systems in Neolithic Europe were strongly constrained by environmental factors, in particular forage resources. The ensuing fluctuations in milk availability would account for cheese-making, transforming a seasonal milk supply into a storable product.

HHHQ Anpassung der Tiere an MITTELEUROPA Eszter Banffy, Maria Ivanova-Bieg, and Jonathan Ethier: → Earliest expansion of animal husbandry beyond the Mediterranean zone in the sixth millennium BC. Scientific reports, Jan 2, 2017, → Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License HHHQ BILD der Ausbreitung !!!

Since their domestication in the Mediterranean zone of Southwest Asia in the eighth millennium BC, sheep, goats, pigs and cattle have been remarkably successful in colonizing a broad variety of environments. The initial steps in this process can be traced back to the dispersal of farming groups into the interior of the Balkans in the early sixth millennium BC, who were the first to introduce Mediterranean livestock beyond its natural climatic range. Here, we combine analysis of biomolecular and isotopic compositions of lipids preserved in prehistoric pottery with faunal analyses of taxonomic composition from the earliest farming sites in southeast Europe to reconstruct this pivotal event in the early history of animal husbandry. We observe a marked divergence between the (sub)Mediterranean and temperate regions of Southeast Europe, and in particular a significant increase of dairying in the biochemical record coupled with a shift to cattle and wild fauna at most sites north of the Balkan mountain range. The findings strongly suggest that dairying was crucial for the expansion of the earliest farming system beyond its native bioclimatic zone. The wild progenitors of the main domestic animals in the Old World are endemic to regions with Mediterranean climate and are adapted to withstand prolonged hot summer droughts and mild but wet winters 1, 2. Since domes-tication, farmers have brought sheep, goats, pigs and cattle to an enormous variety of environments, from semi-deserts to sub-arctic regions. Their present-day distribution, pushed out to the boundaries of the world inhabitable by humans, was mediated through human protection and breeding of animals that thrive under conditions often not tolerated by their wild ancestors. The first steps in this process can be traced back to the farming pioneers of the Balkans who penetrated beyond the borders of the sub-Mediterranean zone of Europe in the early centuries of the sixth millennium BC. How the first Balkan herders succeeded in extending the habitat of their livestock is an intriguing question with pivotal importance for the early history of human-animal relationships. During the later seventh and early sixth millennia BC permanent farming settlements, similar to contemporary sites in the core areas of domestication in southwest Asia, became established in the (sub-)Mediterranean southern Balkans 3, 4. The spread of farming economy into the temperate northern parts of the peninsula, however, was accompanied by pronounced changes, including higher (probably seasonal) residential mobility, smaller community sizes and a loss of sophistication in architecture and material culture 5–8 , a phenomenon which has been designated in the archaeological literature as " the First Temperate Neolithic ". Although the adaptation of herding economy to new bioclimatic conditions has been recognised as a major component of this phenomenon 8–14 , the human strategies which promoted it have remained uncertain.

Neolithische Zeichen (Schrift) in SO-Europa im 5. Jt. v.Chr.

  • Salomon, Corinna: → Donauschriftforschung gestern und heute: Harald Haarmanns Einführung in die Donauschrift aus 2010. (p. 99 f.). Die Sprache, 2012/13, p. 83-125. (Auch "Schrift-Gegner" konzedieren: An der 14C-Chronologie werden keine Zweifel mehr geäußert; die Ritzungen sind nicht abhängig vom Zeichengebrauch in südöstlichen Kulturen. Die Zeichenverwendung steht in erster Linie in religiösem Kontext, sie ist nicht beliebig, die Zeichen scheinen in einem gewissen Ausmaße systematisch gebraucht worden zu sein. Es handelt sich nicht um Schrift nach der linguistischen Definition, aber um eine Art von archaischem Kommunikationssystem, das möglicherweise als Vorstufe von Schrift bezeichnet werden kann.) Salomon bringt ausgezeichneten Überblick über die diesbezüglichen Forschungen seit Gimbutas; ist kritisch zu Haarmann.
  • Book from PhD Merlini Marco: Neo-Eneolithic Literacy in Southeastern Europe:

Contents of the book → Neo-Eneolithic Literacy in Southeastern Europe

Introduction to the → Danube script: Introduction; p. 2: Area of Danube Civilization

Chapter 1 → "Conveying meaning in writing"

Chapter 2 → “Early writing systems and civilizations”

Chapter 3 → “Existence of an archaic script in Southeastern Europe: A long lasting querelle”

Chapter 4 Part I: → „Debugging the process of building a repertory oft he Southeastern European signs“;
Chapter 4 Part II: → especially VINCA; sehr viele Abb. der Zeichen

Vor-Indoeuropäische Sprachen der "Alteuropäer"

Baskisch

Die einzige überlebende vorindogermanische Sprache Europas ist das Baskische.

Ernst Kausen: → "Die baskische Sprache". (Word-Dokument)

Haarmann, H.: Weltgeschichte der Sprachen. Beck´sche Reihe, 2006.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basque_language; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basque_grammar

Andere Vor-Indoeuropäische Sprachen

Lochner-Hüttenbach, F.: Die Pelasger: (Arbeiten aus dem Institut für vergleichende Sprachwissenschaft, Graz, Heft 6.) Wien, Gerold & Co., 1960, 190 Seiten.

https://de-academic.com/dic.nsf/dewiki/1089233#Sprache

Stumfohl Helmut: → Die Pelasger (1986) - viele Beispiele im Vergleich zum Griechischen (S. 21-25: Pelasgische Wörter ...)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pictish_language;

Plötzliches Auftreten der Steppengene in Böhmen und Schweiz

Haak et al: → Dynamic changes in genomic and social structures in third millennium BCE central Europe (Bohemia). Science Advances 25.8.2021

Hafner, A.; Haak, W. et al.: → Ancient genomes reveal social and genetic structure of Late Neolithic Switzerland Nature Communication, April 2020 PLÖTZLICHER EINFALL der YAM ... Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format.

Herkunft und Entstehung der Jamnaja-Leute

Literatur (Maikop etc.)

TUG BIBLIOTHEK: BOOK: Maria Ivanova: The Black Sea and the Early Civilizations of Europe, the Near East, and Asia.

The Black Sea lies at the junction of three major cultural areas: Europe, Central Asia, and the Near East. It plays a crucial role in enduring discussions about the impact of complex Near Eastern societies on European societies, and the repercussions of early urbanization across Eurasia. This book presents the first comprehensive overview of the Black Sea region in the prehistoric period. It penetrates artificial boundaries imposed by traditions, politics, and language to encompass both the European and Asiatic coasts and both Eastern European and Western scholarly literature. With a critical compilation and synthesis of archaeological data, this study situates the prehistoric Black Sea in a global historical context. By adopting the perspective of technology and innovation, it transcends a purely descriptive account of material culture and emphasizes society, human interaction, and engagement with the material world.

Kaukasus und Orient: → Die Entstehung des „Maikop-Phänomens“ im 4. Jahrtausend v.Chr; Prähistor. Zs. 2012

Graves and settlements of the 5th millennium BC in North Caucasus attest to a material culture that was related to contemporaneous archaeological complexes in the northern and western Black Sea region. Yet it was replaced, suddenly as it seems, around the middle of the 4th millennium BC by a “high culture” whose origin is still quite unclear. This archaeological culture named after the great Maikop kurgan showed innovations in all areas which have no local archetypes and which cannot be assigned to the tradition of the Balkan-Anatolian Copper Age. The favoured theory of Russian researchers is a migration from the south originating in the Syro-Anatolian area, which is often mentioned in connection with the so- called “Uruk expansion”. However, serious doubts have arisen about a connection between Maikop and the Syro-Anatolian region. The foreign objects in the North Caucasus reveal no connection to the upper reaches of the Euphrates and Tigris or to the floodplains of Mesopotamia, but rather seem to have ties to the Iranian plateau and to South Central Asia. Recent excavations in the Southwest Caspian Sea region are enabling a new perspective about the interactions between the “Orient” and Continental Europe. On the one hand, it is becoming gradually apparent that a gigantic area of interaction evolved already in the early 4th millennium BC which extended far beyond Mesopotamia; on the other hand, these findings relativise the traditional importance given to Mesopotamia

Maria Ivanova: The chronology of the Maikop culture in the Northern Caucasus: changing perspectives; 2008

The “chieftain’s grave” in the Kurgan of Maikop epitomizes for over a century the spectacular wealth of the North Caucasian Early Bronze Age. Perhaps even more remarkable than the material and artistic value of its objects appears the involvement of North Caucasian society with the developed urban centers of the Near East. Andrew Sherratt insightfully described Maikop as “the world’s first ‘barbarian’ society, generated on the fringe of the area of initial urban expansion” and transmitting lifestyle and technology to the steppe region. The traditional opinion sets this transmission in the context of large-scale urbanization and long-distance state-controlled trade at a developed stage of the Near Eastern economic system. A more recent alternative view, though, perceives Maikop as an offspring of the Near Eastern urban economies and trading networks in their formative phase during the Uruk period. The span of about one thousand years between these two contexts provides reason for an enduring dispute over the chronology of the Maikop period. This paper reviews the available evidence for dating the North Caucasian Early Bronze Age and comments on the recent shift to “high” dating and its implications.

Ivanova, M. 2007. → Tells, invasion theories, and warfare in fifth millennium B.C. North-Eastern Bulgaria, in: Pollard, T. and I. Banks (eds.), War and Sacrifice. Studies in the Archaeology of Conflict. Leiden: Brill 2007, 33-48.

Violence and warfare have generally played a peripheral role in studies of fifth millennium B.C. farming communities of the Lower Danube. This paper aims to reconsider the archaeological evidence of violent conflict in chalcolithic north-eastern Bulgaria with the notion that inter-group conflict was an essential part of prehistoric social life. The focus here is on the role of warfare within the context of small per- manent settlements, essentially settlement mounds, from their establishment around 5000 B.C. to their alleged violent end at the transition between the fifth and fourth millennia B.C.

Maria Ivanova: → Stop and go: die Ausbreitung kaukasischer Metallformen in Osteuropa in der ersten Hälfte des 3. Jt. v. Chr. in: Der Schwarzmeerraum vom Neolithikum bis in die Früheisenzeit (6000–600 V. CHR.). - Kulturelle Interferenzen in der zirkumpontischen Zone und Kontakte mit ihren Nachbargebieten (S. 410 u.: Maikop, Rad und Wagen …)

Eine Reihe von Metallgeräten, die ursprünglich aus dem Iran, Zentralasien und dem Südost-Kaukasus stammen, erreichte im 4. Jt. v. Chr. den Nordkaukasus und erlangte dort in den Grabkomplexen der Maikop-Kultur eine be- merkenswerte Verbreitung. Bis zum Beginn des 3. Jt. erfuhren die neuen metallhandwerklichen Techniken und Formen jedoch nur eine geringe Akzeptanz jenseits des Unteren Don. Ziel des Beitrags ist es, die Ausbreitung kaukasischer Traditionen in der Metallurgie nach Westen aufzuzeichnen und in einen Kontext der gesellschaftlichen Entwicklun- gen in der Steppe einzubetten. Das Metallhandwerk dient dabei als Beispiel für den herausragenden Ein uss des Kaukasus und der Steppe für die Entstehung der europäischen Bronzezeit, der sicher über die Metallverwendung hinausging.

Indoeuropäer

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Indo-European: Indo-European culture‎ (17 C, 13 P); Indo-European genetics‎ (11 P); Indo-European history‎ (12 C, 8 P): Indo-European languages‎ (22 C, 32 P); Indo-European peoples‎ (29 C, 41 P); Pre-Indo-Europeans‎ (14 C, 50 P); Indo-European studies‎ (12 C, 23 P); ; Indo-Iranian languages; Inner Asian Mountain Corridor; Indo-European languages; Indo-European studies

Abstammungs-Hypothesen

Jamnaja-Kultur ( sprich: [ˈjamnaja] auf Russisch Ямная - "Grabhügel"; auf Ukrainisch Ямна); → Jamnaja-Kultur; → Indogermanen - Wikipedia; Literatur

Gesellschaft und Kultur

Erfolg der Jamnaja-Leute ("Indoeuropäer")

Literatur zu den Jamnaja-Leuten (Kurganern)



Indoeuropäisch

(Proto-)Indoeuropäisch

"Versunkene Metropolen - Brennpunkt Hattusa" (Hethiter) ZDFinfo (20.7.2022) - bis 23.6.2023 verfügbar; → Indogermanische Ursprache; → AnthroWiki; → Die Indoeuropäische Fabel; → Frederik Kortlandt: Electronic publications

kompakte Darstellung ...

J. Mallory, A. Dybo, and O. Balanovsky: → The Impact of Genetics Research on Archaeology and Linguistics in Eurasia. Russian Journal of Genetics, 2019, Vol. 55, No. 12, pp. 1472–1487. © Pleiades Publishing, Inc., 2019.

Bomhard, Allan: → The Origins of Proto-Indo-European: The Caucasian Substrate Hypothesis (JIES, Volume 47, Number 1 & 2, Spring/Summer 2019; pre-print)

Anthony, David W.: → Archäologie, Genetik und Sprache in den Steppen: Ein Kommentar zu Bomhard. The Journal of Indo-European Studies, Volume 47, Number 1 & 2, Spring/Summer 2019

Indoeuropäische Sprachen

Quiles, Carlos; López-Menchero, Fernando: → A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN; Published by the Indo-European Language Association 2011: EINFÜHRUNG: https://indo-european.info/FlashHelp/1_Introduction.htm

HHHQ GENERELLE QUELLE DAZU: https://indo-european.info/

Václav Blazek: → From August Schleicher to Sergei Starostin on the development of the tree-diagram models of the Indo-European languages. The Journal of Indo-European Studies, January 2007 (Stammbäume; Germanisch; Keltisch usw.)

Zimmer, Stefan: → Ursprache, Urvolk und Indogermanisierung - Zur Methode der Indogermanischen Altertumskunde. Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Sprachwissenschaft, Vorträge Heft 46.

Proto-Indo-European language: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proto-Indo-European_language
Lower-order reconstructions: Proto-Albanian; Proto-Anatolian; Proto-Armenian; Proto-Balto-Slavic; Proto-Celtic; Proto-Germanic; Proto-Greek; Proto-Indo-Iranian; Proto-Italic; Proto-Tocharian

Proto-language Proto-Indo-European → Indo-European languages; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proto-Celtic_language
Subdivisions: Albanian; Anatolian † ; Armenian; Balto-Slavic (Baltic and Slavic languages); Celtic; Dacian † ; Germanic; Hellenic; Illyrian † ; Indo-Iranian (Indo-Aryan, Iranian, and Nuristani); Italic (including Romance languages); Liburnian † ; Lusitanian † ; Messapic † ; Phrygian † ; Thracian † ; Tocharian †

Evolution of the → Indo-European Languages (Video)

Germanisch

Gruppierungen ...

Dr. Wolfgang Schindler. → Einführung in die Sprachgeschichte. Die sprachliche Frühgeschichte oder: Was war eigentlich vor „den Indogermanen“? (ab S. 8: HHHQ Herleitung des Germanischen und v.a. des Deutschen SEHR GUT)

Althochdeutsch

Abrogans-Literatur:

  • Abrogans bearbeitet in den "Geschichtsquellen"
  • Faksimilie-Ausgabe (mit Beschreibung, ausführlichen Einleitungen und Textumschrift in zwei Bänden), herausgegeben von Bernhard Bischoff, Johannes Duft und Stefan Sonderegger (Zollikofer-Fachverlag AG, St. Gallen 1977)

Lateinisch-althochdeutsches Wörterbuch mit ca. 3239 alphabetisch geordneten Einträgen, benannt nach dem ersten Lemma "abrogans = dheomodi (demütig)". Gesichert ist die Entstehung in der zweiten Hälfte des 8. Jh. (780) im oberdeutschen Sprachraum, wahrscheinlich in Alemannien.

Abrogans – illustrierendes Beispiel der ersten Einträge

Der St.Galler Abrogans ist das älteste überlieferte deutsche Buch mit der ältesten Version des Vaterunsers in Althochdeutsch. Die Handschrift enthält drei verschiedene Texte. Den meisten Raum nimmt mit fast 300 Seiten ein Synonymwörterbuch ein. Es erklärt schwer verständliche lateinische Begriffe mit Synonymen in geläufigerem Latein und übersetzt beide Wörter jedes Begriffspaars ins Althochdeutsche. Erst auf der vorletzten Seite steht schliesslich das berühmte «Fater unseer» und auf der letzten Seite das Credo, das christliche Glaubensbekenntnis, ebenfalls in Althochdeutsch.

Der Abrogans verdankt seinen Titel dem ersten lateinischen Begriff im Synonymwörterbuch. "Abrogans" wird dort mit dem geläufigeren humilis gleichgesetzt und mit «bescheiden» und «demütig» übersetzt. «Bescheiden» ist auch die Aufmachung des Buchs. Lediglich 17 × 10,5 Zentimeter gross, hat es als reine Gebrauchshandschrift keinerlei repräsentativen Charakter. Es besteht aus qualitativ minderwertigen Pergamentrandstücken von unregelmässigem Schnitt und mit vielen Löchern.

Das → St.Galler Vaterunser (hier auf Seite 320 im Abrogans abgebildet) ist der älteste überlieferte zusammenhängende Text im althochdeutschen Dialekt (Alemannien, Bayern).

Fater unseer – Pater noster – Vaterunser
althochdeutsch lateinisch neuhochdeutsch
Fater unseer Pater noster, Vater unser,
thu pist in himile qui es in caelis: der du bist im Himmel,
wihi namun dinan. sanctificetur nomen tuum. geheiligt werde dein Name;
qhueme rihhi din Adveniat regnum tuum. Dein Reich komme
werde willo diin Fiat voluntas tua, Dein Wille geschehe,
so in himile sosa in erdu. sicut in caelo, et in terra. wie im Himmel, so auch auf Erden.
prooth unseer emezzihic kip uns hiutu Panem nostrum cotidianum da nobis hodie. Unser tägliches Brot gib uns heute;
oblaz uns sculdi unseero Et dimitte nobis debita nostra, und vergib uns unsere Schuld,
so wir oblazem uns sculdikem sicut et nos dimittimus debitoribus nostris. wie auch wir vergeben unsern Schuldigern;
enti ni unsih firleiti in khorunka Et ne nos inducas in tentationem, und führe uns nicht in Versuchung,
uzzer losi unsih fona ubile. sed libera nos a malo. sondern erlöse uns von dem Übel.


kilaubu – Credo – Ich glaube
althochdeutsch lateinisch neuhochdeutsch
kilaubu Credo Ich glaube
in kot fater almahticum in Deum, Patrem omnipotentem, an Gott, den allmächtigen Vater,
kiscat himiles enti erda Creatorem caeli et terrae. den Schöpfer des Himmels und der Erde.
enti in Ihesum christ sun sinan ainacun unseran truhtin Et in Jesum Christum, filium eius unicum, Dominum nostrum: Und an Jesus Christus, seinen eingeborenen Sohn, unseren Herrn,
der inphangan ist fona wihemu keiste qui conceptus est de Spiritu sancto, empfangen durch den Heiligen Geist,
kiporan fona mariun macadi ewikeru natus ex Maria Virgine, geboren von der Jungfrau Maria,
kimartrot in kiuualtiu pilates passus sub Pontio Pilato, gelitten unter Pontius Pilatus
in cruce pislacan tot enti picrapan crucifixus, mortuus, et sepultus, gekreuzigt, gestorben und begraben,
stehic in wizzi descendit ad inferos: hinabgestiegen in das Reich des Todes,
in drittin take erstoont fona totem tertia die resurrexit a mortuis; am dritten Tage auferstanden von den Toten,
stehic in himil ascendit ad caelos; aufgefahren in den Himmel;
sizit az zesuun cotes fateres almahtikin sedet ad dexteram Dei patris omnipotentis: er sitzt zur Rechten Gottes, des allmächtigen Vaters:
dhana chuimftic ist sonen qhuekhe enti tote inde venturus est iudicare vivos et mortuos. von dort wird er kommen, zu richten die Lebenden und Toten.
kilaubu in wihan keistn in wiha khirihhun catholica Credo in Spiritum sanctum, sanctam ecclesiam catholicam, Ich glaube an den Heiligen Geist, die heilige katholische Kirche,
wihero kemeinitha sanctorum communionem, Gemeinschaft der Heiligen,
urlaz suntikero remissionem peccatorum, Vergebung der Sünden,
fleiskes urstodali carnis resurrectionem, Auferstehung der Toten
in liip ewikan; amen. et vitam aeternam. Amen. und das ewige Leben. Amen.

Mittelhochdeutsch

Neuhochdeutsch

Untersperger, Eva Katharina: → Der Dialekt von Weyregg am Attersee.- Univ. Wien; Diplomarbeit 2009, 102 S. (Anm.: ausgezeichnete und rare Darstellung zur historischen Herleitung des Dialekts des Attergaus aus dem Mittelhochdeutschen: Zu jedem mittelhochdeutschen Laut wird die Entwicklung zur heutigen dialektalen Lautung in der Weyregger Mundart angegeben.)

Eberhard Kranzmayers: → „Historische Lautgeographie des gesamtbairischen Dialektraumes“. Wien 1956, 164 Seiten. (beschreibt die Veränderungen der bairischen Dialekte bis vor ca. 50 Jahren)

Ricek, Erich Wilhelm: → Mundartliche Pflanzennamen aus dem Attergau. JB-OÖMV 1981, S. 189-228.

... einfache Regeln, um aus der Mundart "Hochdeutsch" zu sprechen.


Zur Bedeutung von Sprache

Andrew Carnie, Dan Siddiqi, Yosuke Sato (Eds.): → The Routledge Handbook of Syntax; (E-BOOK)

Farzad Shari fian (Ed.): → The Routledge Handbook of Language and Culture. 2015. 522 pages.

Das Routledge Handbook of Language and Culture bietet den ersten umfassenden Überblick über die Forschung zur Beziehung zwischen Sprache und Kultur. Es bietet dem Leser eine klare und leicht zugängliche Einführung in interdisziplinäre und multidisziplinäre Studien zu Sprache und Kultur und behandelt Schlüsselfragen der sprach- und kulturbasierten linguistischen Forschung aus einer Vielzahl von Perspektiven und theoretischen Rahmen.

Dieses Handbuch enthält dreiunddreißig neu bearbeitete Kapitel, die:

  • Schlüsselbereiche wie kognitive Psychologie, kognitive Linguistik, kognitive Anthropologie, linguistische Anthropologie, kulturelle Anthropologie und Soziolinguistik abdecken
  • Einblicke in die historische Entwicklung, die gegenwärtige Theorie, Forschung und Praxis jedes Themas bieten und die möglichen zukünftigen Richtungen des Feldes untersuchen
  • zeigen den Lesern, wie die Sprach- und Kulturforschung für angewandte Forschungs- und Praxisbereiche wie interkulturelle Kommunikation und Zweitsprachenunterricht und -lernen von praktischem Nutzen sein kann.

Das Routledge Handbook of Language and Culture wurde von einer Gruppe prominenter Wissenschaftler aus der ganzen Welt verfasst und ist eine unverzichtbare Ressource für Wissenschaftler und Studenten, die in diesem Bereich arbeiten.